Seminole Crop E News

Agricultural News for Farmers and Agribusiness in SW Georgia

Archive for May, 2011

Seminole Crop E News 5-30-11

Posted by romeethredge on May 30, 2011

5-30-11

Farmers and Agribusiness,

Busy week, some got rains and some didn’t, we’re praying for more. Field corn looks very good and is moving along towards maturity.

2011 Drought and Cotton Planting/Replanting Decisions

Don Shurley, UGA Extension  Agricultural and Applied Economics, has some good info at our Cotton web page link below. Look under Breaking News.

http://commodities.caes.uga.edu/fieldcrops/cotton/

Peanuts with leaf burn and some leaves falling off due to phorate or thimet systemic insecticide burn. This looks bad for a little while but will soon be gone and is an indication of the insectcide moving through the plant to do its job  killing thrips.

We use a lot of good herbicides at planting but we often get an early flush of Coffeeweed (Sicklepod). Many times at this point in the season it will be the only weed present. Now’s the time to scout fields for weeds to get them while they’re young.

Cotton Herbicide Issues Seem Overwhelming This Season

Dr Stanley Culpepper, UGA Extension Crop Scientist,

This year has simply been a nightmare when it comes to herbicides and cotton injury, if you are lucky enough to have cotton up. Therefore, lets attempt to address some of the more common and challenging questions.

1. Why am I getting so much herbicide injury in a drought?

In most situations, the level of injury from at-plant herbicides is directly related to the time in which rainfall (irrigation) occurs and the specific herbicides used. In cotton, herbicide injury from at-plant products often takes two forms.

The first type of injury is observed when the herbicide is moved into the soil profile (rain/irrigation) where the herbicide is surrounding the germinating seed. As the seedling is emerging, herbicide uptake by roots and shoots are occurring. This type of injury most often results in stand loss, stunted (slower emerging) plants, and or plants that exhibit chlorosis. Obviously, stand loss can influence cotton yield but in most cases where cotton plants are slightly stunted, yield loss is not observed. However, slower growing cotton increases the likelihood that growers will delay postemergence herbicide applications. Delayed postemergence applications will likely reduce pigweed control and increase management costs.

The second type of injury is observed when the herbicide is sitting on the soil surface and rainfall or irrigation occurs at or near emergence (usually 1 day before emergence through 5 days after emergence). In this situation, the herbicide injury is a result of foliar uptake as the herbicide often splashes onto the emerging plant or is taken up as the cotyledons (crook) push through the soil surface. Injury (necrosis, malformed leaves etc…) of this sort can vary widely depending on the herbicides applied.

The level of injury noted this season is likely a response to the increased number of irrigations being required to get a stand of cotton. Multiple irrigations are essentially making herbicides much more available, thus more active. There is no good solution as growers must provide water for the cotton but understanding the relationship of irrigation and herbicides can be beneficial.

2. Herbicide injury is killing us, we have to stop with these at-plant herbicides.

There is essentially no way to produce Roundup Ready cotton in our state without at-plant herbicides. In fact, for a Roundup Ready system, growers will need either a Reflex mixture or a mixture of Prowl + Staple + Diuron (or Cotoran) behind the press wheel. Ignite-based programs do allow much more flexibility in selecting at-plant herbicides but we strongly encourage growers apply at least one residual herbicide at planting.

3. In Roundup Ready cotton, I have half a stand up and I am waiting on the rest of my cotton to emerge but weeds are up?

For a Roundup Ready producer, three valid topical options exists including 1) Roundup + Dual Magnum (or other Dual products), Roundup + Warrant, or Roundup + Staple. In this situation, Dual is out of the question as it could severely injure the cotton that has not emerged. Our 2011 research with Warrant is very intriguing, but for now we would still encourage growers to avoid this application to cotton seeds that have not emerged.

Thus, the best option would be Roundup + Staple as Staple can be applied both preemergence or postemergence safely to our cotton crop.

4. I have not decided if I am going to replant or keep the stand I have. While I am deciding, weeds are emerging and I need to spray…..what should I spray.

Again our topical applications in Roundup Ready cotton include Roundup + Staple, Roundup + Dual, or Roundup + Warrant. If we don’t replant, all of these options are valid. But, if we do re-plant, then this herbicide application would be made prior to re-planting, essentially being a burndown treatment. None of the residual herbicides (Dual, Warrant, Staple) are labeled for a burndown and therefore are not recommended; however, research suggests the greatest potential for injury to re-planted cotton would be Dual, with Staple being the least concerning.

In an Ignite-based program, simply apply Ignite and then decide if you are going to replant or keep the stand that is present. Apply residual herbicides in the system once the final decision is made.

Grasshopper damage in cotton seen this week. I’ve never seen grasshoppers take out a stand of cotton . It’s rare but I saw it this week in a small dryland field.  Many areas of the field just had stems left.

Learn about all kinds of insects to look out for at these scout schools.

Cotton Scout Schools: Tifton June 13, and Midville June 21, 2011

Cotton insect scouting schools are annually held at various locations in Georgia. These programs offer general information on cotton insects and scouting procedures and will serve as a review for experienced scouts and producers and as an introduction to cotton insect monitoring for new scouts. The annual Cotton Scout School in Tifton will be held on June 13, 2011 at the UGA Tifton Campus Conference Center. The Midville Cotton Scout School will be will be held on June 21, 2011 at the Southeast Georgia Research and Education Center. The training programs at each location will begin at 9:00 a.m. and conclude at 12:30 p.m. No pre-registration is required.

Stinkbugs haven’t been very bad so far this year  but this week we’re starting to see more of them like this one and I’ve seen some egg laying in the edges of corn fields. Mostly brown and rice stink bugs have been found. Also a few more fields have a little NCLB showing up but disease is overall low.

Question Of The Week

Last week I had a photo for you of some sick looking corn. It was getting too much of a good thing. It was in a spot near the irrigation well where extra water ran to and it stayed too wet . Roots need oxygen and won’t do well if it’s too wet also we probably leached away somer nutrients from that area.

This week’s question also has to do with corn and I want to know what’s wrong with these corn plants?

Later,

Rome

Rome Ethredge

SeminoleCountyExtensionAgent

Posted in Agriculture, Corn, Crops, Uncategorized | Tagged: , , | Leave a Comment »

Seminole Crop E News 5-25-11

Posted by romeethredge on May 25, 2011

5-25-11

Farmers and Agribusiness,

We’re closely watching corn for disease and insect problems.  I’ve only seen stinkbugs in fields bordering small grain fields that have just been harvested. And they were pretty bad at these sites, mostly brown stinkbugs.  The only disease I’ve seen is some Northern Corn Leaf Blight (NCLB) in 2 fields that had corn after corn last year under a very high management system, lots of water and everything needed foer a very good crop. That is other than a little common rust which really doesn’t hurt us. Southern Rust can really hurt us so we’re watching for it. If you think you see some, call me.

Here’s a photo I took of some Southern Rust last year.

Please remember that you can follow the updates for our corn sentinel plots at www.sbrusa.net and look under “corn”
rather than “soybeans” or “legumes” in the upper right-hand drop box.

Here’s some good information from Dr. Bob Kemerait, UGA Extension Plant Pathologist, concerning corn disease.

For the record:  NO SOUTHERN CORN RUST has been detected in Georgia at this time;
we are finding common rust in the southwestern counties, but this disease is of
little concern.

NORTHERN Corn leaf blight has been reportedly found in
Seminole County and in Tatnall County
.

Disease Assessment:  The current hot and very dry conditions are generally unfavorable for the development of diseases of corn.  Southern Rust does develop under warm conditions; however we have not seen any of it yet.  Also, the extreme dryness will reduce the risk to
this disease.

Disease management at this time:
Much of our corn crop has reached or will reach first tassel over the next couple of weeks.  “First Tassel” is recognized by many corn
growers as the “time” to apply fungicides.  Our stance at the University of Georgia Cooperative Extension is that “first tassel” is
the appropriate time to ASSESS the NEED for fungicides.  It would be a mistake for corn growers in our state to believe that all of our corn fields
should be automatically sprayed at first tassel- there are many this year that do not need to be sprayed.  However, first tassel can be an appropriate
time to protect the corn crop from serious disease losses.

Here are Dr Kemerait’s  recommendations:

It is appropriate to spray now if the field has good yield potential AND:

1. There is some reason to believe that the field is at increased risk to disease (e.g. corn behind corn and a disease like northern corn leaf blight is
progressing within the crop or if southern corn rust is detected in sentinel plots in the area.)

2. The grower will be making a trip across the field for some other reason and decides to invest in a protectant fungicide application.

3. The grower simply wants the security of a preventative fungicide treatment, whether it is needed or not, and perhaps hopes for some benefit from the
“plant health” concept associated with the strobilurin class of fungicides.

Reasons to delay or even eliminate fungicide applications include:

1. Poor yield potential to begin with.

2. Good rotation coupled with current environmental conditions greatly reduce the
risk of losses to fungal diseases.

3. Currently no southern rust has been detected with Sentinel Plot monitoring
program.

Later,

Rome

Rome Ethredge

Seminole County Extension Agent

Posted in Agriculture, Corn, Cotton, Crops, Forages, Peanuts, Uncategorized, Wheat | Tagged: , , | Leave a Comment »

Seminole Crop E News 5-23-11

Posted by romeethredge on May 23, 2011

 

 Seminole Crop E News 5-23-11

Farmers and Agribusiness;

Cotton Problems

The UGA Extension Cotton Team has been getting several recent reports of poor stands and seedlings having difficulty emerging.  There may be several things going on here, but we collectively want to highlight some of the most common situations.

 1. Since it has been so dry, many dryland fields were planted rather deep (1.25-1.5 inches) in hopes of utilizing some of the moisture that was (and I emphasize “was”) present at these depths.  Anytime cotton is planted this deep, you could expect some difficulty for emerging seedlings.  Exceptions may include rather soft soils that do not form a surface crust, with moisture relief in the near forecast.  In many of the recent reports, some seedlings germinated/emerged while others did not, primarily resulting from inconsistencies in available moisture at these depths, and also a result of this moisture being depleted more rapidly than anticipated.  Some of the seed that did not germinate soon after planting, may in fact still germinate once rains return, and only time will tell.  Some seed may have germinated and died before (or soon after) emergence, due to rapid drying.  If this is the case, the grower may consider replanting, although this is something that should generally be avoided.  The need for replanting must be determined on a case-by-case basis, and potential benefits must be weighed against additional costs for each individual situation.  Previous data from Georgia suggests that replanting may be justified if approximately half of the planted area is occupied by 3-foot skips.  When determining how many 3-foot skips are present, remember to give appropriate credit to large skips (for example, a 12-foot skip should be considered as four 3-foot skips)

2.  Some folks have reported seedlings expressing difficulty emerging through the soil surface with some “broken neck” seedlings observed, where the the cotyledons appear stuck in the soil and the hypocotyls break under this pressure.  For most situations, I’ve been tellings folks to keep the water running in fields where irrigation is an option.  We dont want to flood any cotton, nor irrigate unnecessarily, however it is very important that the soil remain moist until seedlings have fully emerged.  These situations must also be monitored very frequently.  Also some folks have irrigated already, the recent warm (until Tuesday) and windy weather has dried the soil surface out very rapidly.   Light and frequent irrigation could also improve stands. Yes, there is a risk of herbicide injury in these cases, but establishing a decent stand should be priority at this point.  Herbicide injury can be managed in most cases, if a good stand is present.  Delays in maturity can be expected, possibly increasing the importance of very frequent monitoring for thrips.  If particular fields are crusting over, light rotary hoeing may help seedlings emerge, but this needs to been done in a very timely manner, as it could damage fully emerged seedlings.  Switching to a hill-dropped planting system from this point forward could also improves stands in soils that tend to crust.

Photo taken Saturday in Seminole County of thrips injury on young cotton. Grower is spraying for thrips today. Consultant Wes Briggs reports heavy thrips numbers across a large area with a good bit of replanting going on due to various reasons. (Comment by Rome.)

3.  Similar to last year, some folks are experiencing extensive herbicide injury with evidence of severe thrips damage.  Herbicide injury typically slows seedling growth for a while, allowing thrips to feed longer on developing leaves.  We have been experiencing higher than normal thrips infestations, especially in early planted cotton, which tends to exacerbate the problem.  In these cases, growers should monitor for thrips presence very frequently, and should also treat these fields very promptly, if a foliar spray is justified.  Keep in mind that seed treatments may not provide optimal suppression in situations where seedlings are not growing rapidly, and one or more foliar sprays may be required……this can only be determined through frequent monitoring, and unnecessary sprays should be avoided.  Additionally, these situations may scare some folks away from the use of some pre-emergent herbicides.  This should not be the case!!!!  By now, most folks should realize the absolute necessity of every pre-emergent herbicide option we have available for combating pigweed, and this should not change.  Prior to Roundup Ready cotton, a little herbicide injury was not uncommon at all.  This is nothing new.

Situation here where grower planted dryland cotton and got about half of a stand due to soils drying and maybe some cotton seed in dry dirt. We had some rains last week that got up some more plants, see 2 just emerged plants in foreground. Hopefully he now has a stand. He’ll have to decide quickly because thrips are about to kill older plants so if he keeps the stand he’ll need to spray an insecticide right away. (Comment by Rome.)

4.  We’ve been getting alot of questions regarding the decision to “dust-in” cotton and wait on rainfall prior to the insurance cut-off date.  There are two ways to approach this.  One approach is a risk management and business decision based on prior experience and the rapidly approaching insurance cutoff date.  This approach may result in variable business decisions from grower to grower.  The other approach is from an agronomic standpoint.  Some folks may dust in cotton, and get a rain two to three weeks later and achieve optimal stands.  Others may have poor stands.  This is largely dependent on how much (if any) moisture is available at planting, how deep this moisture is, temperatures after planting, and how much rain occurs when it finally does rain.  Due to this variability, it is very difficult to recommend that a grower dust-in cotton unless a rain event is almost guaranteed within a few days (usually a tropical depression or a wide-spread front / storm system that covers most of the state).  Some folks have dusted in cotton in fields that had some very marginal moisture in the zone where seed was placed.  In many cases this has led to erratic stands and other complications.  Keep in mind that replanting should be generally avoided, so it is important to get it right the first time, speaking from an agronomic standpoint.  Additionally, if a grower decides to dust in cotton, the seed should be placed in a zone without moisture and relatively shallow to allow rainfall to reach the seed and begin germination.  We have 11 more days before the insurance cutoff date.  As of today, there is little chance of rain until next weekend (May 28th), although this forecast can change rapidly.  The number of acres that a grower has left to plant varies from grower to grower, but watching this forecast closely over the next week may provide some additional insight on the likelihood of rainfall before the insurance cutoff date.  Hopefully, we will get some rain in time for growers to plant the remainder of their crop by May 31st.  Of course, there is always the risk that conditions will remain dry to the end of our planting window, however we can achieve acceptable yields if germination occurs by June 15th if we have good weather throughout most of our growing season, so we still have some time.  However, preventing delays in maturity may become more important if cotton is planted towards the end of our planting window.  At these later planting dates, rapid germination and stand establishment becomes more critical, as we have lost most of our flexibility by that point in time.  

5.  As we are in the second half of our planting window, some folks have asked when they should start planting earlier maturing cultivars.  There are several things to consider here as well.  Historically, approximately 20 percent of our cotton is planted in the first two weeks of June, even when DP 555 BR was widely planted.  Not all June planted cotton was planted to DP 555 BR, but some likely was.  Late June planting was not necessarily uncommon in far South Georgia, however this may have been risky in some circumstances.  We now have a rather wide range of maturity amongst our currently available varieties, but it is important to remember that essentially all of our newer varieties are earlier maturing than DP 555 BR to some degree.  Additionally, there is no magical date when we need to convert over to earlier maturing varieties for several reasons.  Keep in mind that even an early maturing variety may have late maturing tendencies if it is over-fertilized and over-watered, with little or no PGR management.  Thrips and herbicide injury may also delay maturity.  Other varieties may behave like an early and a late maturing variety depending on the environment in which it is grown.  For early June planted cotton, naturally we will have to focus more on developing a crop in a shorter season environment, but this encompasses more than just variety maturity alone.  Therefore these decisions should be made more in regards to management and environment as opposed to simply making these decisions based on variety maturity.  At later planting dates (first 2 weeks of June), possible delays in maturity should be prevented or managed, and growth should be monitored very frequently to prevent excessive growth, regardless of the variety planted.  For later planted cotton, more attention and/or management may need to be given to mid/full-season or growthy varieties, but variety decisions should still be made based on yield potential in particular environments (dryland versus irrigated).  For example, it may be unwise to plant a very early maturing variety in a dryland situation (if its performance is likely to be reduced) just because it is planted late…..on the other hand, a grower may not want to plant a late maturing growthy variety in a heavily irrigated situation of if he is not likely to manage it for a shorter season environment. 

Rapid emergence is also imperative for later planted cotton.  As the planting window comes to an end, replanting may no longer be an option, therefore irrigation may be necessary for rapid emergence and stand establishment.  Slightly increasing seedling rate may be necessary in some cases in order to offset the risk of standloss.  Remember that we tend to lose a lot of flexibility during the latter part of our planting window.  Additionally, waiting on rain during this time will further delay emergence and maturity of this late planted cotton.  Keep in mind that soil temperatures during this time are usually quite a bit hotter, and soil moisture may deplete much quicker. 

Guy Collins, Jared Whittaker, Phillip Roberts, Stanley Culpepper, and Don Shurley UGA  ExtensionCotton Team Scientists

Sincerely,

Rome

Rome Ethredge

Seminole County Extension Coordinator

Posted in Agriculture, Cotton, Crops | Tagged: , , , | Leave a Comment »

Seminole Crop E News 5-18-11

Posted by romeethredge on May 18, 2011

5-18-11

Farmers and Agribusiness,

Lots of planting going on after the weekend rains. Rain was variable from more than 2 inches at some spots near the lake to just a couple of tenths in some areas.  All who got any were pleased and thankful, it was a big help.  I saw some cotton that had been dusted in coming up today.  Some cotton had severe hail damage and will be replanted. See yesterday’s post (below this post) for photos. Oat and wheat harvest is going well with good yields reported , 80 plus bushels of wheat per acre.  Here’s a link to Dr Dewey Lee’s new blog with some good grains info posted. http://georgiagraincrops.com/

 

Leaf Miner damage to corn leaves is not a serious deal and shouldn’t be confused with a disease. Leaf miner is an insect problem that is usually very sporadic. The round spots are herbicide drift. See earlier posts below with information concerning NCLB disease we have found.

Wes Dozier here with his  Tiftguard peanuts coming up in twin rows. He said he planted the variety partly because of it’s nematode resistance.

Oat harvest is going pretty well, this field of Jim Dozier’s seems to be doing around 100 bushels. Heres a link to my video of the combine harvesting oats. http://www.youtube.com/user/rethredge?feature=mhee#p/u

Sunbelt Expo Field Day

 If you are a farmer or associated with agriculture in any way, mark your calendars for Sunbelt Ag Expo Field Day.  Scheduled for Thursday, July 7 at Spence Field inMoultrie, site of the Sunbelt Expo, Field Day is an event that you could benefit from attending. Field day gives farmers and the public a chance to see research projects in progress and talk with the researchers involved in the experiments. But it also provides the opportunity to view the latest in modern agriculture. 

Trams depart starting at 8:30 and a complimentary lunch is served at 12:15.

Register before 8:15a.m. for a chance to win a $100 early bird cash prize.

Grand Prize and Door Prize Giveaways. Every attendee receives an Expo cap.  

More info. 229.985.1968 or http://www.sunbeltexpo.com

34th Annual Sunbelt Ag Expo ~ October 18-20, 2011

Some splitting of corn leaves caused by hail this past Saturday.

Question of the Week

Last week I had a photo of 2 insects and they were Cicadas. and their cast skins next to them. We often call them locusts. The difference in them was that one of them was a periodical cicada (black with red eyes) that emerges every 13 years in may not mid summer as does our normal cicada that we hear in July in south georgia. We were up in North Georgia for the State 4H shotgun meet and enjoyed these up there. Here’s a link to an article about these creatures that spent 13 years underground feeding on the sap of trees before emerging.

http://www.ugaurbanag.com/landscapealert/uga-entomologist-asks-help-tracking-periodic-cicadas

This week’s question is, Why does the corn in the center of the photo look so bad compared to that around it?

Later,

Rome

Rome Ethredge

SeminoleCountyExtensionAgent

Posted in Agriculture, Corn, Cotton, Crops, Peanuts, Uncategorized, Wheat | Tagged: , , , , | 1 Comment »

Seminole Crop E News 5-17-11

Posted by romeethredge on May 17, 2011

5-17-11

Farmers and Agribusiness,

Hail this past weekend caused some problems in young cotton as you can see in these photos. This grower had a good stand and then hail hit and ruined it by damaging and cutting off cotyledonary cotton. In bottom photo you can see just stems sticking up down the row past one plant that still has part of the cotyledons intact. Unlike corn, cotton’s growing point is on top so this cotton that is has  just a stem left will die.  At least 200 acres will have to be replanted near Iron City, Georgia.

 

Also see my video of the damage on my You Tube page.

Link here…  http://youtu.be/9Sg4ookrTYA

Later,

Rome

Rome Ethredge

SeminoleCountyExtensionAgent

Posted in Agriculture, Cotton, Crops | Tagged: , , | Leave a Comment »

Seminole Crop E News 5-16-11

Posted by romeethredge on May 17, 2011

5-16-11

Farmers and Agribusiness,

We found some Northern Corn Leaf Blight (NCLB) disease in corn.  This disease has become a problem for us in the past few years. The field we found it in is corn behind corn, heavily irrigated and well managed. It is not widespread at this point. We’ve seen a little Common Rust, which is never a problem for us, but no Southern Rust, which causes us big problems.

Here are some comments from Dr. Bob kemerait concerning NCLB from the 2011 UGA Corn Production Guide:

Until 2008, northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) was uncommon in Georgia; however in 2009 NCLB was more important than southern rust and a severe problem in some fields. For example, one irrigated field in Macon County yielded only 70 bu/A; largely due to damage from NCLB. Because the spores of the NCLB pathogen (Exserohilum turcicum)  are able to survive in the crop debris left in a field from season to season, it was believed that northern corn leaf blight was likely to be a serious problem for growers in 2010. The impact of NCLB in 2010 was insignificant compared to that of southern corn rust. It is likely that the same hot weather that fueled southern corn rust last season actually suppressed, in association with the dry weather, the development of NCLB. Unfortunately, we do not have enough data from replicated fungicide trials at this time to determine the benefits in terms of increased yields where fungicides are used to manage NCLB in Georgia. Still, the judicious use of fungicides is considered the best defense against a severe outbreak of NCLB.

Later,

Rome

Rome Ethredge

SeminoleCountyExtensionAgent

Posted in Agriculture, Corn, Crops, Uncategorized | Tagged: , , | Leave a Comment »

Seminole Crop E News 5-14-11

Posted by romeethredge on May 14, 2011

 uga 

May 14, 2011

 Farmers and Agribusiness,

 Irrigating is the main job this week it seems, with corn needing it badly as it starts to tassel and some silking is beginning, and cotton needing it to get a stand and peanuts needing it to be able to prepare the soil and to water in herbicides. Not to mention snap beans in their final days before harvest.  A couple of farmers told me they drove over a thousand miles last week just in the county checking on and going to work on irrigation systems.  We’re praying for rain.

 
As you can see here where the irrigation doesn’t reach the edge of the field the corn looks terrible.
  

Canola harvest this week at Stephen Houston's went well, but he says disease hurt his yields this time. He'll soon plant cotton here.

Here’s a link to a video I shot of the harvest.

 http://youtu.be/KMYrcVtKh_Q

Greg Mims is checking their coton stand in this field and it looks good. Thrips have been a problem in several fields this week.

 
 

Herbicide being applied to field recently planted to cotton. Growers are spending more and more money to control Palmer amaranth.

Brad Thompson with his snap beans that will be machine harvested soon. We’re planning on a 5 ton per acre yield.

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

This tropic croton (a weed) was being controlled by lots of grasshoppers. There can sometimes be a problem with grasshoppers in young cotton stands. For more information on that and other cotton topics go to the UGA Cotton Page. Link below.

 http://commodities.caes.uga.edu/fieldcrops/cotton/

 
 

Calcium at Peanut Planting?  And Other Calcium Questions Answered 

Dr. Glen Harris, UGA Extension Scientist

 For years, the recommendations for providing calcium to the pegging zone were pretty clear. If you needed a pH adjustment you can apply the recommended rate of lime at planting, or if your pegging zone sample calls for gypsum, you apply 1000 lb/a at bloomtime. But along the way, things change and a number of new products have been introduced.  Even the timing of gypsum applications (including wanting to apply gypsum all at planting or split applications) has come into question.  A lot of these new questions are the result of the shift from small-seeded to large-seeded runners and the increasing importance of calcium nutrition.  The following is an attempt to answer some of these questions as clear and concise as possible:

 1) Q: Have the calcium recommendations changed since the shift from small-seeded to large-seeded runners? 

 A: Technically no.  Research data from the last 2 years shows that both the 500 lb/a calcium in the pegging zone requirement and the 1000 lb/a gypsum application rate overall, appear to hold for large-seeded runners.  However, it is clear that following this recommendation is more important for large-seeded runners, and especially for GA 06G.  Also, when the pegging zone calcium is between 500 and 750 lb/a you are in a “grey area” where calcium applications may still be beneficial.  Even calcium chloride or calcium thisosulfate applied through center pivots may be helpful when you are in this pegging zone calcium range (this will be addressed further in another question).

 2) Q: Are foliar calcium applications recommended on peanuts?

 A: No ! No ! No ! This one is abundantly clear.  Foliar calcium products recommended in the 1 qt/a range that are sprayed on the leaves in total spray volumes of 10-20 gal/ acre do not provide enough calcium. Even if they did, they do not get translocated from the leaves to the developing pods.

 3) Q: Isn’t putting calcium chloride or calcium thisoulfate liquids through a center pivot a foliar application then? I mean the water hits the leaves right?

 A: No ! No ! No ! Putting these “liquid calciums” through a center pivot is a soil applied application.  The reason is that you are putting so much water out per acre that even though the water does hit the leaves, initially, the majority of it runs off and is basically applied to the soil.  Think of it this way, when you foliar feed, you apply approximately 10 gal/a final spray volume and try to keep the spray on the leaf. When you apply 1 acre-inch of water you are applying approximately 27,000 gallons !Huge difference !

 4) Q: So do you recommend putting calcium chloride or calcium thiosulfate through center pivots? And does it replace using gypsum?

 A: Yes and No !  Based on research data from the last 2 years conducted at the Stripling Irrigation Park near Camilla, GA, calcium chloride and calcium thiosulfate applied through the a center pivot (to supply approximately 25 lb/a of highly soluble calcium during bloom) did improve yield, calcium in the seed and germination compared to the untreated check.  However, these products do not increase the soil test calcium levels after harvest near as high as gypsum, so in that regard they do not replace gypsum.  These two products applied with center pivot irrigation appear to have the best fit when the pegging zone calcium levels are in that “grey area”of 500- 750 lb Ca/a.  If your pegging zone calcium level is below 500 lb/a then gypsum should be applied instead.

 5) Q: Which is better, lime at planting or gypsum at bloomtime?

 A: Technically they should both work equally as well.  However, the lime method is only supposed to be used when a pH adjustment is called for according to a soil test result.  In addition, based on a field study done in Tifton in 2010, the lime method did not work near as well as gypsum in a dryland situation when there was drought stress.

 6) Q: Can I apply gypsum at planting ?

 A: This is not recommended at this point since there is always a chance that depending on soil type and the amount of rainfall and irrigation, even the calcium in gypsum could leach below the pegging zone. 

 7) Q: Should I split my gypsum applications and put some on at planting and some at early bloom? 

 A: This is also not recommended at this time.  However, research studies are being conducted on irrigated, deep sand soils (again at the Stripling Irrigation Park) with adequate irrigation to see if there may be a benefit to this timing of application.

 8) Q: How late is too late to put out gypsum ?

 A: Gypsum should be applied at “early bloom” or approximately 30-45 days after planting depending on growing conditions.  Once you get past 100 days after planting, the majority of pods have probably already absorbed the proper amount of calcium or not.  Plus, after 100 days after planting, running over lapped vines is not desirable.

 Q: What about this new product called TigerCal30 that I have seen advertised so much ?

 A:  This is also not recommended at this time since it has not been tested thoroughly in Georgia

 
 
 

Chad White with his home grown tomatoes, Home gardeners are watering like crazy too to keep their vegetables growing. There's nothing like produce from your own garden.

 
 
Mixing Order
 
I had a couple of  conversations this week about the mixing order of pesticides in a tank mix. Dr Prostko, UGA Extension Scientist, Provided us with the folowing information.
 
The following is a  thorough listing of pesticide mixing sequences provided by Dr. Gregory W. Schwing of DuPont Crop Protection:The Formulation Science mixing sequence is as follows:

  1. Water soluble bags (WSB)
  2. Water soluble granules (SG)
  3. Water dispersible granules (WG, XP, DF)
  4. Wettable powders (WP)
  5. Water based suspension concentrates (aqueous flowables) (SC),  Microencapsulated (ME), flowables (F)
  6. Water soluble concentrates (SL)
  7. Suspoemulsions (SE)
  8. Oil based suspension concentrates (OD)
  9. Emulsifiable concentrates (EC)
  10. Surfactants, oils, adjuvants
  11. Soluble fertilizers (one exception to this rule: when using AMS with glyphosate, the AMS must be added before the glyphosate.  In my opinion AMS should only be used with glyphosate when hard water (high levels of Ca, K, Na, etc.) is used as the carrier)
  12. Drift retardants
 
 

Giant Live Oak tree out in the middle of a peanut field seen this week is very old but in good health.

 
 
 
 
Question of the Week 

 Last week I asked about an aquatic weed with a bonus question about what else was in the photo. Mark Atwater answered  the questions well

“The weed in question is common salvinia or water fern, an exotic invasive free floating weed.  We have it here in abundance as it crowds out the native duckweed (Lemna spp.) .  It is NOT palatable or desirable, one, to waterfowl as they will eat duckweed preferentially in mixed populations, in essence “selecting” for the salvinia.  There is a giant version which I have not encountered but it is said to be much worse.  BTW its on an alligator. “

See this week’s question below the photo. 

What are these insects? What’s the difference between these?
 
 
 

 

Later,

Rome

 Rome Ethredge

SeminoleCountyExtensionAgent

Posted in Agriculture, Corn, Cotton, Crops, Forages, Peanuts, Wheat | Tagged: , , , | 1 Comment »

Canola Harvest Field Visit

Posted by romeethredge on May 10, 2011

Canola Harvest Field Visit

 For farmers that are interested in considering planting canola you are invited to come for a quick visit to a field being harvested.

 Where: Stephen Houston’s field on Three Notch Rd. south of Iron City, Ga. in Seminole County.

When: Wed May 11 any time between 10:00AM – 12:30PM (drop in)

 Farmers who are interested in considering planting canola are invited to stop by the field now during harvest to pick up information on production costs and contracting.  No presentations will be given, simply some information will be available and any questions can be answered.

Robert Davis of Ag Strong (Oilseed and Canola Buyers) will be here with information.

 Gift certificates to Rooster’s restaurant will be provided.

 

Canola earlier in the season when blooming. Below see Canola that is about mature.

 

Posted in Agriculture, Crops | 3 Comments »

Seminole Crop E News 5-6-11

Posted by romeethredge on May 4, 2011

 

 

May 5, 2011

 Farmers and Agribusiness,

 A lot has been done this week, peanuts and cotton planted and corn irrigated and Nitrogen pumped on.  Land preparation is continuing for peanuts and cotton as well.

Snapbeans are here being protected from disease with a fungicide spray from above.

Forage Field Days

 First, the Perennial Peanut Producers Association (http://www.perennialpeanuthay.org/index.php) will be holding their annual field day on June 4 at the Sunbelt Ag Expo in Moultrie, GA. The field day starts at 10:00 a.m. For more information, email Doreen Curtis at pppa4hay@yahoo.com.

 Second, the UGA|UF Corn Silage and Conserved Forage Field Day will be held June 16th at the UGA Tifton Campus. More details on this can be had on www.georgiaforages.com or directly here: http://bit.ly/lXnW2o.

 

The State Poultry Judging Contest was held this week and Seminole County was there and placed 6th in this contest that brought together the best teams from all over the state. These 4H’er’s worked hard and represented us well. In the photo are myself, Haley Ethredge, Sawyer Meadows, Bailey Atkinson and Aaron Rognstad.

Weather

Dr. Mark A. Boudreau, UGA Climate and Agricultural Risk Management Specialist

 This year’s early spring, courtesy of a strong La Nina in the Pacific, has resulted in early blooms and warm soil for planting.  Continued drought is the ongoing concern. 

 Dry conditions continue

The warmth and below-normal precipitation through winter—also resulting from La Nina—mean that soils were not re-charged with water and drought conditions persist throughout Georgia.  In the south in particular, large areas are below 10% of their normal moisture levels. 

 The three-month outlook from the Climate Prediction Center (www.cpc.noaa.gov) anticipates warmer-than-average conditions but normal precipitation, and some areas of the state may show some improvement in the drought situation. 

 

These sweet onions were dug here this week and they look good.

 

See the young ear on this corn plant just before tassel. Now’s the time start thinking about protecting that ear from stink bug damage and make sure we supply all the water the plant needs to produce a good crop. I haven’t seen many stink bugs yet nor have I seen any Southern Rust or Northern Corn Leaf Blight, but we’re watching for it.

Here’s Jed Evans, Georgia Farm Bureau Young Farmer Coordinator, looking at some field corn with me this week that is about to tassel.

 
 

 

 
 
 

Here is a condition known as “Green Snap” in corn where we see a few stalks snapped over after a high wind, often at night. Corn is most susceptible from 14 leaf stage up to tassel when it’s growing so fast.  I’ve seen it after high winds at time when stalks are in fast growth mode and I’ve seen it where the end gun throws at times when maybe it needs to be adjusted.

Here’s a link to an article about it from North Dakota State University.

http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/procrop/crn/grnsnp07.htm

Here’s some cotton just coming up today in a dryland field. The rains last week were a big help in getting some dryland planted, but it’s about over now until we get more rain.

 

Evaluating Cotton Plant Stands and Replant Considerations

 Drs . Collins and Whitaker, UGA Extension Crop Scientists

 Plant stands should be evaluated very soon after emergence. Replant decisions are far more difficult to make as time elapses, and these decisions usually need to be made more quickly as the end of the planting season draws near. Every field situation seems to be different, and there are several factors to take into account, when considering saving or replanting a sub-optimal stand, such as costs (seed, fuel, labor, additional herbicides/insecticides), herbicide options or limitations, the status/health of the remaining stand, how much time is left to plant, delays in maturity, and yield potential, among others. Therefore, it is imperative to evaluate the crop and make these decisions promptly. Small, evenly spaced and infrequent gaps between plants may have little impact on maturity, architecture, or yield. Frequent gaps of 3 feet or larger however could significantly impact yield and could lead to delays in maturity, as the plants adjacent to these gaps could only compensate for space by forming more outer position and/or vegetative branches or bolls. Additionally, these plants may often produce very thick stalks to support the additional growth of vegetative branches, and if this type of plant structure is observed throughout the field, then harvest efficiency may also be affected.

Observing the size and frequency of these gaps compared to a mental “optimal stand” could help determine potential yield losses and the advantages/disadvantages of replanting. Previous research in Georgia suggests that replanting in June may be justified when 3-foot (or greater) skips occupy nearly 50% of planted acres, which is quite a substantial loss. One reason that such a substantial loss is required before replanting is justified is the economics of starting over, therefore it is important to reduce the risks of stand loss by planting when conditions are optimal and protecting seedlings (from insects, herbicide injury, diseases, nematodes, etc.) for several weeks after emergence. When evaluating a plant stand, take a mental note of stand losses and try to visualize what an optimal stand would look like. If planting 2.5 seed per foot on 36-inch rows, then you would expect to see a stand of approximately 2 plants per row foot. Comparing the stand losses to an optimal stand could provide insight on how much yield may be lost. Additionally, observing the size of gaps between plants may provide insight regarding potential effects on weed control, maturity and canopy architecture. When making visual estimations of stand loss, consider gaps larger than 3 feet as multiple gaps to determine the percentage of acreage that is comprised of 3-foot gaps. For example, if gaps of 6 feet are observed, then it should be considered as two 3-foot gaps.

Secondly, evaluate the status or health of remaining plants. If significant thrips and/or herbicide injury are observed when seedlings are relatively young, then additional yield may be lost, although this varies widely from situation to situation. Whether or not additional injury is observed in fields with skippy stands, it is always imperative that the remaining stand be protected from anything that could cause additional yield loss or delays in maturity. If a skippy stand is the result of hail damage, remember that seedlings can generally survive if one or both cotyledons are still present in whole (preferably) and sometimes in part, although split terminals and delays in maturity are a common result of hail damage. Also evaluate the strength of the main stalk in hail damaged situations, as hail can typically damage or bruise the main stem and affect the seedlings’ ability to recover and continue to grow. These observations should be made meticulously in order to make the best decision. Another factor to consider is yield potential of a particular field, based on field history and other factors (soil productivity, irrigated versus dryland, etc) when deciding whether it is worth the extra effort and expense of replanting. Additionally, growers must decide whether or not a better stand can be established by replanting. Some fields may consistently present a challenge for stand establishment, or moisture may become deficient when growers intend to replant. Most of the time (but not always), replanting is rarely justified, but this can only be determined through extensive evaluation and consideration of all factors. Although there are factors we can not control, there are several factors that can be controlled to protect seedlings, so that replanting can be avoided. Additionally, keep in mind that a skippy stand looks much worse early in the season than it does at the end in many cases.

Cogongrass

 In driving on I-10 Near Mobile Alabama I got an idea of how bad the invasive cogongrass is over there. We’re trying to fight it here and it’s blooming now so let me or someone know if you see it in Georgia. The website below has good info concerning this invasive weed.

 

 http://www.cogongrass.org/georgia/

Controlling Emerged Palmer Amaranth at Planting  

Dr. Stanley Culpepper, UGA Extension Weed Science

 Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth is up in most fields, the exception being those fields planted to heavy cover crops. Growers must control these emerged pigweeds before planting. If the Palmer amaranth population is resistant to Roundup, then one of the more effective mixtures to control emerged plants would be an application of paraquat (Gramoxone, others) plus diuron (Direx, others) plus crop oil (Table 1). Mixtures of diuron with paraquat are usually far more effective than paraquat applied alone.

 Other effective options do exist including Ignite. Ignite can be an effective treatment depending on the rate of Ignite applied and size of Palmer amaranth during the application. Ignite at 29-32 oz/A can be used to effectively and consistently control Palmer amaranth that is 3 inches or smaller, and 40 oz/A of Ignite would likely control 5 inch Palmer. Combinations of Ignite plus diuron would control the appropriated size pigweed and provide some residual control. (Follow labeled plant back restrictions for all herbicides).

 

Ray Hunter is here breaking ground deep with a switch plow to get ready for peanut planting.

 

Question of The Week

 Last week we had a question about and aquatic weed. It was Bladderwort. Mike Casey gave me the correct answer. I find it interesting that it’s carnivorous. It’s a meat eater. The bladders on the plant trap tiny insects and digest them.  When I was pulling the weeds out of the lake I thought I felt the plant pulling me and  closing around my hands. jk.

Another question was how is the date we celebrate Easter determined and I had lots of correct answers. It’s the first Sunday after the full moon after the Spring Equinox.

 This week we continue the aquatic weed theme and I want to know what this weed is that I recently took a photo of? There was a lake in Louisiana, Lake Bistineau, that was drained for over a year due to this weed, in an effort to control it, it had gotten so bad there.

 Bonus Question: What is also in the photo?

Later,

Rome

 Rome Ethredge

SeminoleCountyExtensionAgent

Posted in Agriculture, Corn, Cotton, Crops, Forages, Peanuts, Wheat | Tagged: , , , | 2 Comments »

 
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