Seminole Crop E News

Agricultural News for Farmers and Agribusiness in SW Georgia

Archive for July, 2011

Question of the Week, Coyotes

Posted by romeethredge on July 30, 2011

Yes it was coyote damage to the watermelon, they love them. Also there were deer in the field as well.

This week’s question is, What is this tree and why do I often see them that have no fruit on them? Also, if I plant seed from this fruit, will it produce a seedling?

Later,

Rome

Posted in Uncategorized | 2 Comments »

Cotton Disease a Problem

Posted by romeethredge on July 30, 2011

We are seeing spots appear on cotton leaves, bracts and bolls, and we are worried about whether it will affect yield.  It seems worse where we have recieved more rain , where cotton is well irrigated , on a little heavier soils, on cotton after cotton , and where it’s occured in the past.  There are many types of leafspots on cotton, some related to potassium in the plant, but we have isolated corynespora leaf spot from several samples.

Here are Dr Bob Kemerait’s, UGA Extension Scientist, comments.

Changing weather patterns over the past week with increased rainfall have created
conditions much more favorable for development and spread of fungal diseases.

COTTON:
We are getting cotton leaves with spots; many of which are diagnosed as “Corynespora leaf spot”.
As you know, it is my belief that a) this disease can cause significant
premature defoliation in a field and b) can be managed with a fungicide based
upon very limited data.  THEREFORE:  I do not recommend
that each and every field where Corynespora leaf spot has been found needs
to be treated with a fungicide!  However, where the disease has been
severe in the past, where rotation is short, where the disease appears to
be progressing beyond a few incidental spots, the grower may want to
consider treating some part of the field with a fungicide like Headline,
Twinline, or Quadris.

The above 3 photos show some of the spotting we are seeing in cotton this week from various causes.

Farmer Brad Thompson and Consultant Wes Briggs and I are checking out some good looking fruited up cotton that has leafspot and spots on bracts and bolls. This field has recieved more that it's share of showers lately keeping leaves wet, a recipe for fungal infection.

Posted in Agriculture, Cotton, Plant Pathology | Tagged: , | Leave a Comment »

Disease in Peanut

Posted by romeethredge on July 30, 2011

Peanuts are looking good but white mold is moving in strongly this week. We have above ground white mold and below ground and a faker, Phanerochaete. Remember that even with good white mold materials we will still see small hits of the disease. What we don’t want to see is it moving down the row, and big affected areas.

Dr. Kemerait, UGA Extension Plant Pathologist says “It is leaf spot and white mold weather!”

Here’s Phanerochaete, it looks bad and all but really doesn’t cause us problems. It looks a lot like white mold , sclerotium rolfsii, but there are some differences. It may look white at first but often turns a n orangey color , also it’ll be toothy looking. The main way to tell the difference however is to scrape some of it away from the peanut stem and see if the plant tissue is affected beneath it. If the plant is fine then it’s likely the imposter.

Here’s the bad boy, underground white mold. You can see the white mycelium and one of the pods was starting to rot. This can be a real problem and can really only be found with scouting and pulling up random plants. Often a problem in hot dry conditions.

Posted in Agriculture, Crops, Peanuts, Plant Pathology | Tagged: , , | Leave a Comment »

Southern Corn Rust and Possible Stalk Rot – Nematodes

Posted by romeethredge on July 30, 2011

I’ve found Southern Rust in several fields this week. It’s amazing the difference in Southern Rust from year to year. Last year it ate us up, but this year was not a real problem. Here’s some comments from Dr Bob Kemerait, UGA Extension plant pathologist.

“Southern rust is now found in corn across the southern coastal plain of Georgia.  Corn
that is approaching “black layer” is safe.  Corn that
has reached dough stage may be safe.  Earlier than dough stage
and I would suggest that grower look at their yield potential, look through
their field(s) and consider what value a fungicide application could mean to
them.  Late planted corn?  Be prepared for outbreaks of southern
rust.”

Something else we’ve seen this week is bad patches in some corn fields where the stalk and plant went down early and in those patches, the yield drops a lot on yield monitors.  We’re not sure what it is but it has the appearance of fusarium stalk rot.  I flew over thousands of acres of corn in Seminole County yesterday, thanks to pilot Wade Spooner, and the blotches or patches are evident in the field in question. Fortunately, this problem does not show up from the air in very many other fields at this time , see greener field in the other photo. It may be that it’s just not evident yet but we are hopeful that the problem won’t be in all fields.

Here’s some comments about the stalk rot from Dr Bob Kemerait, UGA Extension plant pathologist

“CORN Stalk Rots:   In several south Georgia counties we are seeing UNUSUAL stalk deterioration across wide swaths in the
field.  The lower stalk is simply deteriorating and it is NOT bacterial
stalk rot!  In some instances it seems Fusarium may be involved, in other,
not clear at all.  What IS clear is that yield in areas affected by this
rot (disease or otherwise) drops by up to 80+ bu/A.”             Update on 8-15-2011 – We took nematode samples from this field in the bad areas and high numbers of Southern RootKnot Nematodes were found here , so that is a big part of the yield decreases seen here, apparently.

Area in the center of photo affected, note the dead and some falling stalks. This was a narrow streak that came towards the camera for quite a long ways.

Some affected stalks on left. Good stalks on right were just 10 yards away.

Same field where above photos were taken, note the patchiness. This field will still average very high in yield, but in those bad areas the yield dropped a lot.

Nearby younger field, more green color, can't detect any problem , hopefully there won't be one here. This was the case in most of the fields we saw.

Posted in Agriculture, Corn, Plant Pathology | Tagged: , , | Leave a Comment »

Corn Harvest

Posted by romeethredge on July 21, 2011

Corn Harvest is going well and is getting started in several fields. Grain moisture levels are running 21 to 24%. So on farm drying is taking place, and then corn is being mostly trucked to chicken feed mills. Some will be stored as well later on and some will go to Ethanol plants. Yields are estimated at 220 bushels per acre in some fields. Lots of heat and sunshine and irrigation makes good corn. Quality looks good as well.

Here’s a link to a video I took yesterday of the corn Harvest.http://www.youtube.com/user/rethredge?feature=mhee#p/u/0/3fqfjZjGxrY

Post Harvest Grain Management

Corn harvest has begun and  we need to be careful concerning keeping insects out of stored corn. We need to use only labeled products. Most of our corn goes to chicken feed and they closely monitor pesticide residues coming in on the corn for the chicken feed.

Here’s a link to the UGA Post-Harvest Grain Management site that has lots of good information

http://www.caes.uga.edu/commodities/fieldcrops/gagrains/postharvest/index.html

Posted in Corn, Crops, Uncategorized | Tagged: , | Leave a Comment »

Late Planted Soybeans

Posted by romeethredge on July 21, 2011

Ultra late planted irrigated soybeans (after July 20) do best in drilled rows of 7.5 inches at about 170,000 to 200,000 plants per acre ( minimum of 49 to 58 pounds @ 3500 seed per pound, if you get them all up, more for larger seeds and poor conditions). Successful farmers usually use a no-till grain drill just after corn harvest. If weeds are present , spray them just after corn harvest or just after planting. A preemergence residual herbicide may be used as well if needed. Farmer Raymond Thompson says to just leave the corn stalks as this will help at harvest time to get the bean plants into the combine and this saves a lot of work, expense and time, compared to disking and burning. I’ve seen them have the drill planting beans in the same field with the corn combine still there getting the corn out.

Here’s a link to a video I took yesterday.

http://www.youtube.com/user/rethredge?feature=mhee#p/u/1/62Brn72on7U

The quicker you get them growing the better. Planted in corn stubble you will need to use 30-50 pounds of N to get these beans as tall as possible. We often pump the nitrogen through the irrigation system. Always plant into wet dirt, try not to plant and water up as this can form a crust, but under certain conditions you may have to water them before they crack the ground. Water after soybeans have cracked through for best results. All season irrigation is necessary for good results.

Cobb variety soybeans is your best tried and true choice. It’s not Roundup Ready however so put your herbicides out quick as these beans will grow very fast. Other varieties have been used and may work well.  Also watching for and treating for insects and diseases is critical. Seminole County farmers have often made 35 bu/acre and finished planting as late as the second week in August, but the later you get, the lower the yield and the riskier it is.  In some years the yields are low when we have an early fall.  Farmers say they like double cropping the soybeans behind corn for another reason,  it keeps late season weeds down  in the fields.

Jimmy Clements of Plantation Seed, Raymond Thompson, Mims Farms,  Jared Whittaker and Eric Prostko contributed to this article.


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Posted in Corn, Soybeans | Tagged: , , | 1 Comment »

Cotton Growth and Development

Posted by romeethredge on July 20, 2011

Cotton is growing and setting bolls where it’s been watered. Here’s a field below, that is starting to bloom. I know when it was planted because I have a photo further down with the planters in the field on May 20. Donnie Ray,  Randall and Jose were putting seed in the ground.

The cotton is 50 days old and that fits in pretty closely with the chart here from the 2011 UGA Cotton Production Guide. Degree Day 60’s is another way to track crop progression and on the chart you can see the accumulation of DD-60’s for the growth progression.

You can go to our weather station (to get to them click on Georgia Weather Stations on links on the right on my blog) to calculate the DD-60’s for your specific time frame. To do so click on Calculator on left side of main page and then on Degree Days under that and then click on Donalsonville Weather station on the degree day

calculator and chose your dates. You’ll get results like I did on screenshot down below.

Plant monitoring and mapping help determine if the plant is growing and fruiting normally.

Assuming a lack of moisture stress or injury from one of many potential above or below ground pests, plant growth is primarily influenced by temperature.

Plant development proceeds approximately according to a heat unit model which uses 60 o F as the base temperature. In this system, heat units are referred to as DD-60s and are calculated based on an average daily temperature oF minus 60o F. The formula is listed below.

For example, a day with a maximum of 86o F and a minimum temperature of 70o F produces 18 DD-60s, [(86o + 70o / 2) 60o = (156o/ 2) – 60o = 78o – 60o = 18 DD-60’s].

 Temperatures above 93 degrees should be entered as 93 because higher temperatures probably don’t increase growth.

Posted in Agriculture, Cotton | Tagged: | Leave a Comment »

Deep South Stocker Conference

Posted by romeethredge on July 20, 2011

The  third annual Deep South Stocker Conference will be held August 19, 2011 at Auburn University’s E.V. Smith Research Center, Shorter, Alabama. This conference is a  joint effort between the Alabama Cooperative Extension System, the Mississippi State University Extension Service, and the  University of Georgia Cooperative Extension.

This  year’s conference will be a one-day event with several education seminars in the morning, and tour of the research center that afternoon. Registration for the  conference cost $75/person or $100/couple. The  seminars  will cover pertinent topics in economics and marketing, forage  management, health, and nutrition. In addition, a trade show will be held  in conjunction with the conference to allow stocker operators the  opportunity to network with industry professionals and to become aware  of products and services that can improve their profitability and/or  product quality.

Click here to go to registration site.  http://www.deepsouthstocker.com/

Posted in Agriculture, Cattle, Forages | Leave a Comment »

Late Planted Grain Sorghum

Posted by romeethredge on July 20, 2011

Late planted grain sorghum aka milo is an option after corn harvest or on land not yet planted or where we failed to get a stand.  It can be harvested for silage or grain. One problem is herbicides used on the first crop may hurt grain Sorghum .

Here are some keys to late planting:

Deep till if there hasn’t been any deep tillage within the last few months.

Watch for chinch bugs and lesser cornstalk borers, use insecticide treated seed if possible. During flowering stage watch for midge.

Plant 50,000 to 65,000 seeds per acre on dryland and 80,000 to 100,000 seeds per acre on irrigated land. Narrow row plantings are best 14 to 22 inches.

If you use Concept treated seed you can use metolachlor herbicide at planting. Atrazine can be used on any sorghum when it has 3 leaves.

Early cold in the fall can hurt yields and test weight and make drying in field difficult.

Dr Dewey Lee , UGA Extension scientist, has some good info concerning late planting of Grain Sorghum on his blog at this link.

http://georgiagraincrops.com/2011/06/28/216/

Posted in Agriculture, Crops | Leave a Comment »

General Rain A Blessing

Posted by romeethredge on July 18, 2011

The past few days we’ve had a great general rain and we’re thankful. I thought is was at least a million dollar rain but someone said no it was at least a 10 million dollar rain. It came just right on peanuts and cotton. Peanuts are pegging and filling pods and cotton is setting and filling bolls.  It’s also started an upward trend on our groundwater levels.

We had water levels as low as we have them now 2 other times recently. In August of 2007 our levels got down to 47 1/2 feet and in September of 2000 we saw 46 1/2 feet and a few days ago we saw groundwater levels of 46.4 feet but we’re seeing the levels rise over the past few days a little. Normal water level is 35 feet this time of year.  We’re fortunate to live where the groundwater levels always recharge after sustained rainfall, especially if we also get some north of us.  I just went to a Peanut meeting in San Antonio, Texas and they are really hurting for water there. The dryland crops are a loss. On the local news the weatherman reported that the groundwater had dropped another half foot and was at 40 feet lower than normal.

We spent part of Saturday kayaking down Spring Creek and enjoyed the rain there.

Dryland peanuts are setting a crop here on Eddie Lynn’s farm. Recent rains have been a big help, Mr Eddie says, and they couldn’t come at a better time.One of his sons, Dale looks on, he planted the peanuts and there’s a good stand and good yield potential.

Posted in Agriculture, Crops, irrigation, Water | Tagged: | Leave a Comment »

 
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