Seminole Crop E News

Agricultural News for Farmers and Agribusiness in SW Georgia

Archive for March, 2015

Wheat Rust in Mitchell County

Posted by romeethredge on March 20, 2015

My fellow county agent, Andy Shirley, in Mitchell County (Camilla, Ga) reported leaf rust this week in some wheat there.

Click on this link to read his report, Mitchell County Ag News.

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Posted in Plant Pathology, Wheat | Tagged: , | Leave a Comment »

Canola Aphids

Posted by romeethredge on March 20, 2015

I remember that when we grew canola back in the early nineties it seemed like we had to spray for aphids a fair amount. In the past few years we have had limited acreage but we haven’t seen a whole lot of aphids. We are seeing some aphids now in canola. Fields I’ve been in lately weren’t at treatable levels but we need to be on the lookout, and treat if needed.

Here ‘s a photo I took recently of an infested stalk.

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Treat seedling and rosette stage plants if populations exceed 5 aphids per leaf or15% infested plants.

Treat bud and early bloom stage if infestation exceeds 15% infested stalks (racemes).

Late flower and pod stage – Do not treat.

During bloom apply pesticides early in the morning or late in the day to avoid harming bees.

 

 

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A little natural predation going on here, ladybugs love aphids.

 

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Posted in Agriculture, Canola, Entomology | Tagged: | Leave a Comment »

Question of the Week – Snuggling

Posted by romeethredge on March 20, 2015

Last week I had a photo of some carrots that had recently been harvested that were twisted. Bob Youmans said that you know it’s been a very cold winter and the carrots grew that way because they were snuggling to try to keep warm.

I wrote our UGA Vegetable scientist, Dr. Tim Coolong about it and he said he can’t argue with that answer. He said, “I’ve seen this before in sweet potatoes, too. Usually I see it in a little heavier soil- typically not chemical/herbicide related just usually odd root growth due to growing conditions – it has been cold though…….”

 

 

What’s happening here? How are these seeds defying gravity, sideways on the plate?IMG_5966

Posted in Agriculture, Horticulture, vegetables | Leave a Comment »

Peanut Disease and Nematode Update

Posted by romeethredge on March 17, 2015

Updates for Peanut Disease and Nematode Management in the 2015 Season

Dr. Bob Kemerait, UGA Extension

Disease and nematode management will be a critical component for profitability and success in the 2015 season.

  •  It is expected that there will be a significant increase in acreage planted to peanut in 2015.  Planting more peanuts at the expense of good crop rotation will surely lead to a reduction in yield over time.

  • The 2015 Peanut Rx app is available FREE for iPhones at the App store (search “Peanut Rx”) and on Android phones at Google Play (search “UGA Peanut Rx”).  

 

  • Some growers are interested in using Proline fungicide either in-furrow or as an early-season treatment for management of white mold.

Question:  When would you consider a proline application early?

Answer: I would certainly consider an in-furrow use of Proline for fields where risk to CBR is high or where it has been a problem in the past.  An in-furrow use is an effective treatment for CBR.

I would also consider use of in-furrow Proline where additional efforts to manage white mold are desired, e.g. where white mold has been a problem, where fields are planted peanut to peanut, and perhaps in years where excessively high summer temperatures are expected.

NOTE:  An in-furrow use of Proline for control of white mold is NOT the BEST use of the product (banded early emergence applications are generally more consistent in protecting yield).  However, for growers who do not want, or are unable, to put out the banded application, an in-furrow application can have some efficacy.

From the data, the most effective way to use Proline is as a post-emergent, banded application likely between 3 and 5 weeks after emergence.  This treatment is most appropriate for fields at increased risk to white mold.  Factors that increase risk to white mold include:

A.  Short rotations with peanut.

B.  Fields with a history of losses to white mold

C.  Seasons that begin very much warmer than normal.  (Growers will have several weeks after planting to decide if such is the case.

  •  VELUM Total is now labeled for use in peanut as a management tool for nematodes and thrips.  The rate for peanut will be 18 fl oz/A.  VELUM Total can be mixed with liquid inoculants and in-furrow fungicides.

  •  Registration for ELATUS fungicide (a combination of Abound and the SDHI fungicide “solatenol”) is expected to occur in time for use this growing season, but has not occurred yet.  When it is labeled, ELATUS will be an effective fungicide for management of leaf spot and soilborne diseases.

Posted in Agriculture, Peanuts, Plant Pathology | Tagged: , | Leave a Comment »

What if Chlorothalonil is short this season for Leafspot control?

Posted by romeethredge on March 17, 2015

  • There are a number of reports suggesting that chlorothalonil (sold under many brand names to include Bravo, Echo, Equus, Chloronil, etc,) will be in short supply in 2015.  As chlorothalonil is an important fungicide for management of leaf spot diseases of peanut, a shortage could have a significant effect.  Below are some recommendations from Dr. Bob Kemerait, UGA Extension, for dealing with challenges that could occur.

    • The first two applications of chlorothalonil (30 and 40 DAP, days after planting) can be removed IF Proline, 5.7 lf oz/A is banded at approximately 35 DAP and a Provost program is initiated at 60 DAP.  The first two chlorothalonil applications can also be omitted if Priaxor is used on the crop approximately 45 DAP.

    • Chlorothalonil can be extended by tank mixing a reduced rate (e.g. 1.0 pt/A rather than 1.5 pt/A) with 2 fl oz/A Tilt/Bumper, 5 fl oz/A Topsin-M, or Alto, 5 fl oz/A.

    • Tilt-Bravo or Echo-Propimax can be substituted for chlorothalonil.

    • An application of Elast (15 ozs/A) can be used to replace an application of chlorothalonil.

    • For a SINGLE application during a season, Topsin-M, 10 fl oz/A, can replace an application chlorothalonil.

    • Absolute (trifloxystrobin + tebucoanzole) and Stratego (trifloxystrobin + propiconazole) can be substituted for chlorothalonil.

Posted in Peanuts, Plant Pathology | Tagged: , | Leave a Comment »

CottonMarketing Update 3-13-15

Posted by romeethredge on March 13, 2015

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Posted in Cotton, Economics | Tagged: , | Leave a Comment »

Question of the Week – Fungicide Killing Plant Disease

Posted by romeethredge on March 12, 2015

Last week in the photo, Dr. Bob Kemerait had a slide with lots of good info about sites where fungicides kill plant diseases. He was discussing different modes of action of fungicides and he was saying that we have some good chemistry now to combat and prevent plant diseases and that’s a good thing. But we need to rotate chemistry to prevent resistance problems.

 

This week I have a photo that local machinist and cattleman, Bob Youmans, gave me.  He asked me what this is and what is causing it?  So let me know what you think.

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Posted in Agriculture | 1 Comment »

Canola Sclerotinia Problems

Posted by romeethredge on March 12, 2015

We are starting to see Sclerotinia Stem Rot in Canola now. It can be a very serious disease here in the winter. Fortunately we don’t see it in our summer crops this far south. We often spray a fungicide to help control it.

Consultant Wes Briggs sent me this photo yesterday showing the readily apparent problem. He says he has been seeing a fair amount of it this week. He saw some last week.

 

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Sclerotinia stem rot, also known as white mold, is caused by the soil-borne fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. It has a wide host range and can attack almost any broadleafed plant, but it is not a problem on grasses. This fungus is active only during cool, wet weather. In Georgia, the fungus is active only during the winter months and has never been a problem on any of our summer crops, although it has been present in the soil throughout Georgia for many years. Infections on canola have not been observed before December, and new infections are rarely seen after April.

The fungus survives the hot summer months as sclerotia in the soil. Sclerotia can survive for a year in southern Georgia soils and for up to 2 years in northern Georgia with no decline in viability. Viability declines over subsequent years. Any time during the winter, if the soil becomes very wet for several days, sclerotia can germinate in two ways: by producing mycelium in the soil or by producing small mushroom-like apothecia that produce spores above the soil surface. These spores are disseminated by wind and rain to other parts of the field or to adjacent fields.

Neither the mycelium nor the spores can invade a healthy canola plant directly. Both must become established in dead organic matter in contact with healthy tissues to initiate disease. Once a disease lesion is initiated, the fungus secretes acids and enzymes that kill additional plant tissues. The fungus can rapidly destroy small plants or girdle the stem of large plants if the weather remains wet and cool.

There are no canola cultivars with resistance to stem rot and, in very wet seasons, some plants may be killed in any field in Georgia. In drier years, fewer plants will be killed by this disease. Poorly drained fields suffer losses much more frequently than well-drained fields. The most important control measure is to select well drained fields that have not had canola or another susceptible crop for the past two winters.

Posted in Agriculture, Canola, Plant Pathology | Tagged: , | Leave a Comment »

Supplemental Cattle Feeding

Posted by romeethredge on March 11, 2015

Many cattlemen are having to feed more hay than expected due to poor establishment of winter annuals, poor growth of winter annuals due to cold/wet conditions, issues with Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, leaching rains etc.  Hay is hard to find. We are getting down to marginal to bad quality hay, so cattle feed supplementation is needed.

Here’s some information about supplemental feeding from UGA Livestock Scientists, Jacob Segers and Lawton Stewart.   Most cattle producers are close to finishing calving (winter/spring calving herds), or in the later half of lactation (fall calving herds).

Considering the situation, we put together 2 tables of potential supplements for cattle/forage combinations.

This first table is using readily available feeds from AFG Feed here in Donalsonville. The second table is for use with other feed sources.

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Please note:

  • These are general and can be fine-tuned with a forage report and knowing the actual supplements available.

  • Most urea-based liquid feeds, blocks, and tubs should provide adequate nutrients if the suggested supplement is 3.5 lb/hd/d or less for brood cows.  These feeds are not recommended for calves under 500 lb.

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Posted in Agriculture, Cattle, Livestock | Tagged: | Leave a Comment »

Corn Growing Degree Days and Soil Temperatures

Posted by romeethredge on March 11, 2015

In digging up some corn seedlings that had been in the ground for a week I was worried about development due to the cool conditions during part of that timeframe. But there was pretty good growth on the young seedling.

So, I compared soil temperatures and Growing Degree Days (GDD) to previous years.

Here’s 2 inch soil Temperatures in Donalsonville from March 3 to March 9 for the last 4 years.

2015 – 60.2 Degrees

2014 – 56.5 Degrees

2013 – 55.8 Degrees

2012 – 61.2 Degrees

So soils have been warmer than the last couple of years for this time frame.

Now lets look at GDD’s. If you go to UGA’s georgiaweather.net you can pull data easily like this to show GDD’s.

We use a base temperature of 50 degrees F and a top temperature of 86 to figure the amount of heat we’ve had on corn that influences growth and development.

Generally it takes about 100 GDD for corn to emerge, so this fits pretty close to what we are seeing.

 You can see in this chart that for March 3 to 9 in 2015, we’ve had more heat than both of the last 2 years, but we are very like 2012.

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Posted in Agriculture, Corn | Tagged: | Leave a Comment »

 
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